Posted by on September 11, 2017 7:42 am
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Winnicott and transitional space … reality and play

Life as Fiction: http://home.mira.net/%7Ekmurray/psych/lifeasf.htm

The term “interactive fiction” is also occasionally used to refer to adventure games ,  which are also called hypertext fiction , collaborative fiction , an can shade  into participatory novels, according to the New York Times . [5] It is also used to refer to literary works that are not read in a linear fashion, but rather the reader is given choices at different points in the text; the reader’s choice determines the flow and outcome of the story. … visual novel 

The first adventure games to appear were text adventures , which typically use a verb noun parser to interact with the user. These evolved from early mainframe titles like Hunt the Wumpus (Gregory Yob ) and Adventure (Crowther and Woods ) into commercial games which were playable on personal computers , such as Infocom ‘s widely popular Zork series. Some companies that were important in bringing out text adventure games were Adventure International , Infocom , Level 9 Computing , Magnetic Scrolls and Melbourne House , with Infocom being the most well known

Most text adventures tell the story as if the player himself inhabited the game world. The games did not specify any details about the protagonist, allowing the player to imagine him- or herself as the avatar .

Despite their lack of graphics, text adventures include a physical dimension where players move between rooms. Many text adventure games boasted their total number of rooms to indicate how much gameplay they offered. [2] These games are unique in that they may create an illogical space , where going north from area A takes you to area B, but going south from area B did not take you back to area A. This can create mazes that do not behave as players expect, and thus players must maintain their own map.

These illogical spaces are much more rare in today’s era of 3D gaming, [2] and the Interactive Fiction community in general decries the use of mazes entirely, claiming that mazes have become arbitrary ‘puzzles for the sake of puzzles’ and that they can, in the hands of inexperienced programmers, become immensely frustrating for players to navigate.

Interactive fiction shares much in common with Multi-User Dungeons (‘MUDs’). MUDs, which became popular in the mid-1980s, rely on a textual exchange and accept similar commands from players as do works of IF; however, since interactive fiction is single player, and MUDs, by definition, have multiple players, they differ enormously in gameplay styles. MUDs often focus gameplay on activities that involve communities of players, simulated political systems, in-game trading, and other gameplay mechanics that aren’t possible in a single player environment.

Around 1975, Will Crowther , a programmer and an amateur caver, wrote the first text adventure game, Adventure In early 1977, Adventure spread across ARPAnet , [13] and has survived on the Internet to this day. The game has since been ported to many other operating systems , and was included with the floppy-disk distribution of Microsoft’s MS-DOS 5.0 OS. Adventure is a cornerstone of the online IF community; there currently exist dozens of different independently-programmed versions, with additional elements, such as new rooms or puzzles, and various scoring systems.

The largest company producing works of interactive fiction was Infocom , [14] which created the Zork series and many other titles, among them Trinity , The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy and A Mind Forever Voyaging .

In order to make its games as portable as possible, Infocom developed the Z-machine , a custom virtual machine which could be implemented on a large number of platforms, and which took standardized “story files” as input.

In a non-technical sense, Infocom was responsible for developing the interactive style that would be emulated by many later interpreters.

Classic Text Adventure Masterpieces of Infocom .

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Nethack

Rogue is a dungeon crawling video game first developed by Michael Toy and Glenn Wichman around 1980. It was a favorite on college Unix systems in the early to mid-1980s, [1] in part due to the procedural generation of game content. [2] Rogue popularized dungeon crawling as a video game trope, leading others to develop a class of derivatives known collectively as “roguelikes “. [3] For example, it directly inspired Hack , [4][5] which in turn led to NetHack . [6] Roguelikes have since influenced commercial games outside the genre, such as Diablo . [7]

In Rogue , the player assumes the typical role of an adventurer of early fantasy role-playing games . The game starts at the uppermost level of an unmapped dungeon with myriad monsters and treasures . The goal is to fight one’s way to the bottom level, retrieve the Amulet of Yendor (Rodney spelled backwards), then ascend to the surface. [8] Until the Amulet is retrieved, the player cannot return to earlier levels. Monsters in the levels become progressively more difficult to defeat.

The game’s setting was influenced by Dungeons & Dragons , from which most of the monsters were, initially, closely modeled. 

Each dungeon level comprises a grid of 3 rooms by 3 rooms, or dead end hallways where rooms would be expected. Later levels include mazes in the place of rooms as well. Unlike most adventure games of the time, the dungeon layout and the placement of objects within are randomly generated .

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